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Instant coffee was invented as a solution for use where speed of preparation is needed and as storage solution for larger coffee surpluses but in time became beverage on par with regular coffee.
First espresso machine was made at the end of the 19th century and it made a whole new family of coffee beverages. Starting in Italy it spread across the world especially since the 1980s. Read about history of espresso coffee.
Today, coffee is consumed everywhere in the world. But it was not always so. It took a lot of time for it to come from Ethiopia, Yemen, Persia, Turkey and Venice to other parts of the world and becomes a morning ritual for thousands of people.
Cappuccino, traditional Italian coffee drink, originates from Vienna. It is made with espresso, hot milk, and steamed-milk foam which can be decorated with artistic drawings made with the same milk. That kind of decorations is called latte art.